• 29 Oct 2012

    Normalisation. Part 3

    Second Normal Form (2NF)

    Second normal form is only concerned with tables with composite keys, so our Customers table is already in 2NF. The aim of this stage of normalisation is to ensure all partial dependencies are removed.

    The way we remove the partial dependencies we have in the Bookings table is to go through every attribute and question is dependency on the composite key. For example, if we consider the flightDestination field, this is dependent on the flightNo and not the CustNo and therefore needs to be removed into its own table.

    We can also identify that the membership related fields are dependent on the custNo, so these will be added to the Customer table.

    It is not possible for every field in our Bookings table to depend on just the one primary key so these will remain where they are. For example, bookingDate is dependent on the composite ...

    • Software Design & Development
  • 22 Oct 2012

    Be brave! Revealing the risks is good project management

    risk management

    The benefits of risk management in projects is huge. An essential tool in any project management methodology is the 'Risk Log' or 'Risk Register' which provides a means of recording the identified risks, the analysis of their severity and the necessary management actions required.

    The result will be that you minimise the impact of project threats which strengthens your ability to deliver your project on time, on budget & with the quality results your project sponsor demands.

    As a general guide a basic Risk Log should contain the following data fields:

    Unique ID:

    A unique reference number


    Presented in a structured format:

    • Condition - 'There is a risk that'
    • Cause - 'Caused by'
    • Consequence - 'Resulting in'


    Early warning signs of risk occurring


    What is the likelihood of the risk occurring?


    What will the impact be if the risk occurs? High, Medium or Low


    There ...

    • Project Management
  • 15 Oct 2012

    Implement roles within Iron Speed

    Iron Speed Designer has a clever tool called the Application Security Wizard to make it easier to assign roles within an application.

    Application Security Wizard

    The Application Security Wizard deals with the two main types of control:

    • Authorisation – Controls who can do what on the database; who would have access to which pieces of data and what will be unavailable or invisible to the user dependant on their log in role.
    • Authentication- Controls who can sign into the database and what roles are available.

    There are a variety of different user authentication security protocols available to you and it is vital that you choose the right one for the application you are making:

    • Database (User Table) – Uses the login and roles in database tables.
    • Microsoft Active Directory – Uses Microsoft Active Directory Server for user authentication.
    • Microsoft SharePoint – Uses Microsoft SharePoint groups.
    • Windows Authentication – Uses your ...
    • Iron Speed
  • 10 Oct 2012

    User roles within Iron Speed

    What is a role?

    A role is a set of behaviours, conditions and rights that can be applied to an actor within a particular situation. Roles can be applied to many different situations in society, however this mini report will focus on how roles can been implemented within a piece of software to make it more secure.

    What is the purpose of roles?

    Roles are controls that are assigned to an application. When roles have been assigned, it means that there is some protected data that can only be accessed via log in (username and password). Typical roles control:

    • Who can log into an application in the first place.
    • What data the user can have access to as read-only.
    • What data the user can update themselves; add, edit or delete.

    All companies want to use various user roles that allow different modes of access. The most common are:

    • Users – ...
    • Iron Speed
  • 08 Oct 2012

    Normalisation. Part 2

    Un-normalised Form (UNF)

    Your list of fields is in un-normalised form (UNF). I find that normalisation is easiest to do in a spread sheet application due to its tabular nature, you can easily chop and change things as you go. The following table contains all of the attributes that will be in the database. If you want to have a go at listing them yourself and see how you do, that’s fine! Don’t worry about any of the ID fields just yet, that’s the next stage.

    • Cust_No
    • Cust_Addr
    • Cust_Town
    • Cust_County
    • Cust_Postcode
    • Cust_Name
    • Cust_Tel
    • Cust_DOB
    • Cust_Email
    • userName
    • password
    • staffID
    • staffName
    • bookingNo
    • bookingDate
    • membershipType
    • discountAmount
    • flightNo
    • flightDestination
    • flightCapacity
    • flightDate
    • flightTime
    • flightReturnDate
    • flightReturnTime
    • flightCost
    • airline
    • paymentMethod
    • quantityOfSeats
    • subTotal
    • Total
    First Normalised Form (1NF)

    There are a few steps to getting our data into 1NF. Firstly we need to identify all attributes which we don’t require. These are attributes which can be calculated using ...

    • Software Design & Development

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